Total intramural R&D expenditure (GERD) comprises current costs and capital expenditure on R&D. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by type of costs, by economic activity (NACE Rev.2), by size class, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives and by regions (NUTS 2 level). Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.
The direct collection of R&D data through dedicated surveys has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual. Administrative data sources (which may include both financial data from revenue agencies as well as other types of administrative sources, such as company records) may be used as another source of information for compilation of R&D data, if the concepts, definitions and coverage used by administrative data sources are sufficiently close to those contained in the Frascati Manual. The analysis of Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD) published by Eurostat proves that the developed and rich countries dedicate the largest proportion of GDP to R&D. Unfortunately, Poland is at the end of the list almost. R&D data are used for estimation of capitalization of R&D expenditure in the national accounts.
(2014). A model for the total intramural research and development (R&D) expenditure (GERD) by sectors of performance within the EU21.
In constant price terms, it increased by 5.3%. R&D intensity (R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP) is an indicator of high political importance at the EU, national and regional levels because this indicator measures the Europe 2020 strategy’s headline target to invest 3% of EU’s GDP in R&D. The growth of the indicator seems to be promising. Over the last decade, the total intramural R&D expenditure in Poland increased four times while the UE average grew just by one-third nearly.
UTRGV and the National Center for Women in Information Technology (NCWIT) are collaborating to create a two-year plan to improve gender equality in computer science at the university. It is often displayed as a matrix of performing and funding sectors. GERD and the basis be formed by the GERD matrix of international comparisons of R&D expenditures.
2002. This domain features statistics derived from the European Patent Office (EPO) raw database PATSTAT, on patents from EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), triadic patent Patent and families Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. Patent statistics breakdowns include the fields of the International Patent Classification (IPC); institutional sector, economic activities, foreign ownership and also High Tech patents and aggregations by several technology areas (i.e. ICT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, “green” energy technologies). Science, technology and innovation statistics have been acknowledged in 2010 by the Commission as to be closely linked to the policy activities carried out by the European Union. This places Innovation indicators as a key element in monitoring the objectives of the Innovation Union initiative and European Research Area (ERA) under the different priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy.
The National Statistical Institute presents the bilingual (Bulgarian/English) brochure Bulgaria 2018 to users of statistical information. The brochure is addressed to a wide range of users (international institutions, business, students, experts etc.) and changes the traditional presentation of statistical information by offering an innovative structure with a parallel translation in English. The publication contains topical statistical information about the demographic, social and economic development of the national country over the 2013 – 2017 period. In 2008 the total expenditure amount to 0.49% of GDP, which is only 0.year 01 percentage points higher than the previous.
It covers all expenditure for R&D performed in the economy, including both current costs and capital expenditures for R&D. Slovenia is often considered a leader in the region. Its GERD/ GDP ratio rose from 1.63% to 2.59% between 2008 and 2013, albeit within a contracting GDP. Slovenia is also the only country in Southeast Europe where business enterprises fund and perform the majority of R&D. Although business R&D has stagnated in most other countries, R&D intensity has risen in Herzegovina and Bosnia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Serbia and Macedonia; as of 2012, it was close to 1% in Serbia (0.91), which was performing better in innovation surveys also.
R&D data can be collected directly through surveys, through administrative data sources, or by combination of the two. The direct collection of R&D data has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual, though this may have some cost implications. Furthermore, R&D data are not collected on a regular basis in many developing countries and that not all sectors of performance (Business enterprise, Government, Higher education, and Private non-profit) are covered. In particular, the Business enterprise sector often goes uncovered. In 2012, the total amount of the expenditure on research and development (R&D) was 495.9 million BGN, which was by 15.5% more in comparison with the previous year.